Oregon Trail: Your Ultimate Guide To The OT

The correct English pronunciation of “Oregon Trail” is:

awr-i-guhn treyl

The Oregon Trail is located in the western United States, stretching from Missouri to Oregon.

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  • Trail System: National Historic Trails
  • Length: 2170 miles
  • Abbreviation: OT
  • Pet Friendly?: No.
  • Start Point: Independence, Missouri.
  • End Point: The main ending point of the Oregon Trail is Oregon City, Oregon.
  • Halfway Point: Info not available.
  • Bike?: Yes, in some areas.
  • Average Miles Per Day: 15
  • Popular Trail Names: Wildflower, Lone Wolf, Thunderfoot
  • Hunting Allowed? No.
  • Dams On Trail: None
  • Wifi?: No.

  • Created / Founded By: R. Philip Loyd
  • States It Runs Through: Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon
  • Highest Peak: Mount Hood
  • Markings: Historical route markers.
  • Trail Conditions: Rough, rugged, and challenging.
  • Estimated Completion Time: The estimated completion time of the Oregon Trail is approximately four to six months.
  • Fastest Known Time (FKT): Info not available.
  • How Many Completed: Unknown.
  • Oldest Person To Thru Hike It: Info not available.
  • Deaths Per Year: No official record

Essential Info On The Oregon Trail

Difficulty Level

The difficulty level of the Oregon Trail varied depending on various factors such as weather conditions, terrain, availability of resources, and the experience and preparedness of the pioneers. The journey was challenging and demanding, requiring careful planning, navigation skills, and physical endurance. Pioneers faced numerous obstacles including river crossings, steep mountain passes, harsh weather conditions, and the constant threat of diseases and accidents. The difficulty level of the Oregon Trail was high, and only those who were well-prepared and resilient were able to successfully complete the journey.

Elevation Gain

The Oregon Trail has an elevation gain of approximately 2,000 feet from its starting point in Missouri to its endpoint in Oregon.

Weather Conditions

The weather conditions on the Oregon Trail can vary greatly depending on the time of year and location.

Safety Tips & Potential Dangers

When hiking the Oregon Trail, it is crucial to prioritize safety. Firstly, ensure you have proper navigation tools and maps to avoid getting lost. Additionally, pack enough water and food to sustain yourself throughout the journey. Be prepared for changing weather conditions and dress accordingly. Lastly, inform someone about your hiking plans and expected return time for added security.

Can You Hike It Alone?

Hiking alone on the Oregon Trail is not recommended due to the potential risks and challenges involved, including the remote and rugged terrain, unpredictable weather conditions, and lack of immediate assistance in case of emergencies. It is advisable to hike with a partner or in a group for safety reasons.

Crime Info

Crime on the Oregon Trail was relatively low, as the majority of pioneers were focused on survival and reaching their destination rather than engaging in criminal activities. However, occasional incidents of theft, conflicts with Native American tribes, and disputes among travelers did occur.

Permits and Fees

Permits and fees may be required for hiking the Oregon Trail. Specific requirements can vary depending on the section of the trail and the managing agency. It is recommended to check with the relevant land management agency or park for up-to-date information on permits and fees before embarking on the hike.

Directions to Trailhead

There are multiple trailheads for the Oregon Trail, depending on which section of the trail you are interested in. Here are directions to some of the main trailheads:

1. Independence, Missouri Trailhead:
– From Kansas City, Missouri, take I-70 East.
– Continue on I-70 for approximately 10 miles.
– Take Exit 12 for MO-291 North toward Liberty.
– Follow MO-291 North for about 10 miles.
– Take the exit onto US-24 East toward Buckner/Independence.
– Continue on US-24 East for approximately 10 miles.
– Look for signs indicating the Oregon Trailhead in Independence.

2. Fort Laramie, Wyoming Trailhead:
– From Cheyenne, Wyoming, take I-25 North.
– Continue on I-25 for approximately 100 miles.
– Take Exit 92 for US-26 West toward Guernsey/Fort Laramie.
– Follow US-26 West for about 30 miles.
– Look for signs indicating the Fort Laramie National Historic Site, which serves as a trailhead for the Oregon Trail.

3. Baker City, Oregon Trailhead:
– From Boise, Idaho, take I-84 West.
– Continue on I-84 for approximately 100 miles.
– Take Exit 302 for US-30 East toward Baker City.
– Follow US-30 East for about 10 miles.
– Look for signs indicating the Oregon Trail Interpretive Center, which is a trailhead for the Oregon Trail.

Please note that these are just a few examples of trailheads along the Oregon Trail, and there are many more throughout the trail’s route. It’s recommended to research specific sections or areas you are interested in to find more detailed directions.

Conservation and Etiquette Guidelines

Conservation was crucial for survival on the Oregon Trail. Travelers had to carefully ration their supplies, including food, water, and fuel, as resources were limited along the trail. They had to be mindful of their waste and avoid overconsumption to ensure they had enough provisions to reach their destination. Additionally, pioneers were expected to respect the natural environment by not damaging or destroying plants, trees, or wildlife along the trail.

Etiquette was also important on the Oregon Trail to maintain harmony among the diverse groups of travelers. Pioneers were expected to be courteous and respectful towards one another, as well as towards Native American tribes they encountered. They were encouraged to share resources, help those in need, and resolve conflicts peacefully. Following proper trail etiquette helped foster a sense of community and cooperation among the travelers, making the journey more manageable and enjoyable.

Cell Phone Coverage

The cellphone coverage on the Oregon Trail can be spotty due to its remote and rural nature. However, Verizon is generally considered the best cellphone provider for that area.

Photos And Images From Along The Oregon Trail

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Hiking The Oregon Trail

Section Hikes

1. Independence Rock
2. Chimney Rock
3. Fort Laramie
4. Scotts Bluff
5. Courthouse and Jail Rocks
6. Soda Springs
7. Three Island Crossing
8. Farewell Bend
9. Whitman Mission
10. The Dalles

Day Hikes

The Oregon Trail, a historic pioneer route that stretched approximately 2,000 miles from Missouri to Oregon in the 19th century, offers several well-known day hiking routes that allow modern-day adventurers to experience a taste of the trail’s history and natural beauty. Here are a few concise paragraphs about some of these popular day hikes:

1. Barlow Road: Located near Mount Hood in Oregon, the Barlow Road is a section of the Oregon Trail that was used by pioneers to bypass the treacherous Columbia River Gorge. Today, hikers can explore a 4.5-mile segment of this historic route, starting at Barlow Pass and ending at Pioneer Woman’s Grave. The trail winds through dense forests, offering glimpses of the rugged Cascade Mountains and providing a sense of the challenges faced by the pioneers.

2. Blue Mountain Crossing: Situated in Eastern Oregon, Blue Mountain Crossing is a day hike that allows visitors to walk in the footsteps of the pioneers. This 2.5-mile trail follows a section of the Oregon Trail near the town of La Grande, offering panoramic views of the surrounding Blue Mountains. Interpretive signs along the route provide insights into the hardships and triumphs experienced by the pioneers as they crossed this rugged terrain.

3. Champoeg State Heritage Area: Located near the Willamette River in Oregon, Champoeg State Heritage Area offers a variety of day hiking options along the Oregon Trail. Visitors can explore the 4.5-mile Historic Loop Trail, which takes them through the site of the former pioneer town of Champoeg. Along the way, hikers can see the remains of the town, including the historic Butteville Store and the Pioneer Mothers Memorial Cabin, while learning about the early settlers’ lives and the pivotal vote that determined Oregon’s territorial status.

4. Scotts Bluff National Monument: While not in Oregon, Scotts Bluff National Monument in Nebraska is a significant landmark along the Oregon Trail and offers several day hiking opportunities. The monument features a network of trails that wind through the rugged terrain, providing stunning views of the North Platte River Valley and the surrounding prairies. Hikers can choose from various trails, such as the Saddle Rock Trail or the Summit Road Trail, to explore this iconic section of the Oregon Trail.

These are just a few examples of the well-known day hiking routes along the Oregon Trail. Each offers a unique experience, allowing hikers to connect with the history and natural beauty of this historic pioneer route. Whether exploring the dense forests of Oregon or the vast prairies of Nebraska, these hikes provide a glimpse into the challenges and triumphs of the pioneers who ventured westward on the Oregon Trail.

Points Of Interest

1. Independence Rock, Wyoming
2. Chimney Rock, Nebraska
3. Fort Laramie, Wyoming
4. Scotts Bluff National Monument, Nebraska
5. Oregon Trail Ruts, Guernsey, Wyoming
6. Fort Kearny State Historical Park, Nebraska
7. Whitman Mission National Historic Site, Washington
8. Oregon Trail Interpretive Center, Baker City, Oregon
9. National Historic Oregon Trail Interpretive Center, Flagstaff Hill, Oregon
10. End of the Oregon Trail Interpretive Center, Oregon City, Oregon

Stopping Points

1. Independence, Missouri: This was the starting point for most pioneers embarking on the Oregon Trail. It served as a major outfitting and supply center, where travelers could gather provisions and form wagon trains before setting off on their journey.

2. Fort Kearny, Nebraska: Located along the Platte River, Fort Kearny was a crucial stopping point for pioneers. It provided a place to rest, resupply, and repair wagons. It also offered protection from potential Native American attacks.

3. Chimney Rock, Nebraska: This iconic landmark along the Oregon Trail was a significant milestone for travelers. Its distinctive shape and towering height made it a recognizable landmark, and many pioneers would stop to rest and take in the view before continuing their journey.

4. Fort Laramie, Wyoming: As pioneers approached the Rocky Mountains, Fort Laramie served as a vital resupply point. It provided a safe haven for travelers, offering food, water, and medical assistance. It also served as a trading post, where pioneers could exchange goods and restock supplies.

5. The Dalles, Oregon: This was the final major stopping point before reaching the end of the Oregon Trail. Located along the Columbia River, The Dalles offered pioneers a chance to rest and prepare for the last leg of their journey. It was also a place where pioneers could decide whether to continue on to Oregon or settle in the fertile Willamette Valley.

Scariest Part Of The Trail

The scariest part of the Oregon Trail was undoubtedly crossing the treacherous and deadly Snake River. This crossing was notorious for its swift currents, deep waters, and jagged rocks, posing a significant threat to the pioneers and their wagons. Many lost their lives or belongings in the attempt to navigate this treacherous river, making it a terrifying and perilous obstacle on the journey.

Hardest Part Of The Trail

The most challenging aspect of the Oregon Trail was the treacherous journey through the Rocky Mountains. The rugged terrain, steep slopes, and unpredictable weather conditions posed significant obstacles for pioneers, making it extremely difficult to navigate and traverse safely. The mountainous region demanded immense physical endurance, resourcefulness, and careful planning to overcome the formidable challenges and continue the arduous journey towards the promised land of Oregon.

Water Sources

1. Rivers and Streams: Along the Oregon Trail, pioneers relied heavily on rivers and streams as their primary source of drinking water. The most popular ones included the Platte River, Snake River, and the Columbia River.

2. Springs: Natural springs were another common source of drinking water along the Oregon Trail. These springs provided fresh and clean water, making them highly sought after by pioneers.

3. Wells: As the pioneers moved further west, they often had to dig wells to access groundwater. Wells were essential for obtaining drinking water in areas where rivers and streams were scarce or unreliable.

4. Lakes and Ponds: Pioneers occasionally encountered lakes and ponds along the Oregon Trail, which served as additional sources of drinking water. However, they had to be cautious and ensure the water was safe to drink.

5. Rainwater: During the rainy season, pioneers collected rainwater in barrels or other containers to use as drinking water. This was especially important in areas with limited water sources.

Places To Eat

1. The Pioneer Grill: A historic diner serving classic American comfort food, located near the Oregon Trail’s starting point in Independence, Missouri.

2. The Buffalo Bistro: A rustic steakhouse specializing in bison dishes, offering a hearty meal for hikers near Fort Kearny, Nebraska.

3. The Trailside Café: A charming café known for its homemade pies and fresh sandwiches, situated in the picturesque town of Scotts Bluff, Nebraska.

4. The Mountain View Tavern: A cozy tavern nestled in the scenic mountains of Wyoming, serving delicious pub-style fare and local craft beers.

5. The Oregon Trail Smokehouse: A popular BBQ joint offering mouthwatering smoked meats and traditional sides, conveniently located near the end of the Oregon Trail in Oregon City, Oregon.

Guided Tours?

Yes, guided tours are available on the Oregon Trail. There are several locations along the trail where you can find guided tours, including:

1. Oregon Trail Interpretive Center (Baker City, Oregon): This center offers guided tours of the Oregon Trail, providing visitors with a comprehensive understanding of the trail’s history and significance.

2. National Historic Oregon Trail Interpretive Center (Flagstaff Hill, Oregon): Located near Baker City, this center offers guided tours and interactive exhibits that bring the Oregon Trail experience to life.

3. End of the Oregon Trail Interpretive Center (Oregon City, Oregon): This center offers guided tours and educational programs that focus on the end of the Oregon Trail and the settlement of Oregon City.

4. Various State Parks and Historic Sites: Throughout Oregon, there are several state parks and historic sites that offer guided tours of specific sections of the Oregon Trail, such as Champoeg State Heritage Area and Emigrant Springs State Heritage Area.

It is recommended to check with each specific location for the availability and schedule of guided tours, as they may vary.

Gear Packing List

1. Tent
2. Sleeping bag
3. Sleeping pad
4. Cooking stove
5. Cookware (pots, pans, utensils)
6. Water filter or purification tablets
7. Food storage containers
8. Bear bags or bear canisters
9. Backpack
10. Hiking boots
11. Rain jacket
12. Warm layers (fleece, thermal underwear)
13. Hat and gloves
14. Sunscreen
15. Insect repellent
16. First aid kit
17. Map and compass
18. Headlamp or flashlight
19. Multi-tool or pocket knife
20. Water bottles or hydration bladder
21. Extra clothing (socks, underwear)
22. Personal hygiene items (toothbrush, toothpaste, toilet paper)
23. Cash and identification
24. Cell phone and charger
25. Camera or binoculars (optional)

Camping Things To Know

While camping on the Oregon Trail, there are a few lesser-known things that can greatly enhance your experience. Firstly, it is important to be aware of the potential dangers posed by rattlesnakes. These venomous snakes are commonly found in the region and can pose a threat to campers. To minimize the risk, it is advisable to keep your campsite clean and free of debris, as rattlesnakes are attracted to areas with potential hiding spots. Additionally, be cautious when reaching into crevices or under rocks, as these are common hiding places for rattlesnakes. By staying vigilant and taking necessary precautions, you can ensure a safer camping experience.

Another lesser-known aspect of camping on the Oregon Trail is the presence of poison oak. This plant, which grows abundantly in the region, can cause severe allergic reactions upon contact. It is important to familiarize yourself with the appearance of poison oak, which typically has three leaflets and can vary in color depending on the season. Avoid touching or brushing against any plants that resemble poison oak to prevent an allergic reaction. If you do come into contact with poison oak, thoroughly wash the affected area with soap and water as soon as possible to minimize the reaction. Being aware of the presence of poison oak and taking necessary precautions can help ensure a more enjoyable camping experience on the Oregon Trail.

Advice For Beginners

When hiking the Oregon Trail as a beginner, it’s important to be well-prepared and informed. Firstly, make sure to research and plan your route in advance. Familiarize yourself with the trail’s history, landmarks, and potential hazards. Obtain detailed maps and guidebooks to help navigate the trail effectively.

Next, pack essential gear and supplies. Carry a sturdy backpack with enough water, food, and snacks to sustain you throughout the hike. Dress in layers to accommodate changing weather conditions and wear comfortable, sturdy footwear. Don’t forget to bring a first aid kit, sunscreen, insect repellent, and a whistle for emergencies.

While on the trail, pace yourself and take breaks as needed. Start with shorter hikes to build endurance and gradually increase the distance over time. Stay hydrated and listen to your body’s signals. Be mindful of wildlife and respect their habitats by keeping a safe distance. Finally, always practice Leave No Trace principles by packing out your trash and minimizing your impact on the environment.

Remember, hiking the Oregon Trail can be a challenging but rewarding experience. By being well-prepared, respecting nature, and taking it at your own pace, you’ll have a memorable journey along this historic trail.

What If Lost?

If lost on the Oregon Trail, stay calm and try to retrace your steps to find familiar landmarks or signs. If that fails, stay put and wait for help, as wandering further could make it harder for rescuers to find you.

Places To Stay

Types Of Shelters

Covered wagons and tents were the main types of shelters used on the Oregon Trail.

Popular Hostels

1. The Bunk+Brew Historic Lucas House
2. The Hiker’s Inn
3. The Oregon Trail Lodge
4. The Hiker’s Haven
5. The Pioneer Hostel
6. The Trailblazer’s Rest
7. The Hiker’s Oasis
8. The Oregon Trail Bunkhouse
9. The Pioneer’s Retreat
10. The Hiker’s Hideaway

Other Amenities

The Oregon Trail offers a range of amenities to enhance visitors’ experiences. Some of the top amenities include well-maintained hiking trails that showcase the natural beauty of the region, picnic areas with scenic views for outdoor dining, and interpretive centers that provide historical information and exhibits about the trail’s significance. Additionally, campgrounds equipped with facilities such as restrooms and showers are available for overnight stays, ensuring a comfortable and convenient experience for travelers.

Hot Springs Locations

1. Hot Lake Springs – Located near La Grande, Oregon.
2. Crystal Crane Hot Springs – Located near Burns, Oregon.
3. Belknap Hot Springs – Located near McKenzie Bridge, Oregon.
4. Umpqua Hot Springs – Located near Roseburg, Oregon.
5. Bagby Hot Springs – Located near Estacada, Oregon.
6. Alvord Hot Springs – Located near Fields, Oregon.
7. Summer Lake Hot Springs – Located near Paisley, Oregon.
8. McCredie Hot Springs – Located near Oakridge, Oregon.
9. Austin Hot Springs – Located near Lakeview, Oregon.
10. Cougar Hot Springs (Terwilliger Hot Springs) – Located near Blue River, Oregon.

Trail Magic

Trail magic on the Oregon Trail refers to unexpected acts of kindness and support provided to hikers and travelers along the trail. It is a tradition that has been carried on for decades, where individuals or communities offer assistance, supplies, or encouragement to those making the arduous journey. Trail magic can take various forms, but its purpose is to uplift and provide relief to weary travelers.

One can expect to encounter trail angels, who are individuals or groups that set up impromptu aid stations along the trail. These trail angels often provide water, food, and other essential supplies to hikers, helping them replenish their resources and boost morale. They may also offer a place to rest, access to showers, or even transportation to nearby towns for resupply. Trail magic can be found at road crossings, trailheads, or sometimes in the middle of nowhere, surprising hikers with unexpected acts of kindness.

Additionally, trail magic can extend beyond physical support. It often includes emotional support and camaraderie, as hikers share stories, advice, and encouragement with one another. This sense of community and connection can be a significant morale booster during the long and challenging journey. Overall, trail magic on the Oregon Trail is a testament to the generosity and compassion of individuals and communities, providing much-needed assistance and creating lasting memories for those embarking on this historic trail.

Best Lookouts, Viewpoints, And Scenic Views

The Oregon Trail, spanning over 2,000 miles from Missouri to Oregon, offers numerous scenic views along its historic route. While it is challenging to pinpoint the absolute “most scenic” views, there are several notable highlights that captivate travelers.

One such breathtaking sight is Chimney Rock in Nebraska. Rising 325 feet above the surrounding plains, this towering rock formation served as a prominent landmark for pioneers. Its unique shape and grandeur against the vast prairie landscape make it an iconic symbol of the Oregon Trail.

Another remarkable view is found at Independence Rock in Wyoming. This massive granite formation stands as a testament to the thousands of pioneers who passed by, leaving their names carved into its surface. The panoramic vistas from the top of Independence Rock provide a stunning perspective of the surrounding plains and mountains.

Further along the trail, the Blue Mountains in Oregon offer a scenic spectacle. As pioneers descended into the valleys, they were greeted by the majestic beauty of these mountains. The lush greenery, rolling hills, and expansive vistas create a picturesque backdrop that showcases the natural splendor of the Pacific Northwest.

Additionally, the Columbia River Gorge in Oregon presents awe-inspiring views. As pioneers reached this point, they were met with the sight of the mighty Columbia River carving its way through towering cliffs. The combination of the river’s power, lush forests, and cascading waterfalls, such as Multnomah Falls, make this area a true visual feast.

While these are just a few examples, the Oregon Trail offers countless scenic views that vary from vast prairies to towering mountains, from serene rivers to dramatic rock formations. Each section of the trail has its own unique beauty, allowing travelers to immerse themselves in the diverse landscapes that pioneers once traversed.

Resupply Points

The Oregon Trail was a historic route used by pioneers in the 19th century to travel from the Missouri River to the Oregon Territory. Along the trail, there were several popular resupply points that provided essential goods and services to the travelers. Here are some of the most notable ones:

1. Independence, Missouri: Located at the starting point of the Oregon Trail, Independence was a bustling town where pioneers gathered supplies before embarking on their journey. It offered a wide range of goods, including food, clothing, tools, and wagons. Many pioneers also hired guides and purchased livestock here.

2. Fort Kearny, Nebraska: As one of the first major stops along the trail, Fort Kearny served as a vital resupply point. It provided weary travelers with fresh water, food, and medical assistance. The fort also offered repair services for wagons and livestock, ensuring that pioneers could continue their journey safely.

3. Fort Laramie, Wyoming: Situated at the confluence of the North Platte and Laramie rivers, Fort Laramie was a significant resupply point for Oregon Trail travelers. Here, pioneers could restock their provisions, repair wagons, and trade with Native American tribes. The fort also provided protection and a safe haven for travelers.

4. Fort Bridger, Wyoming: Founded by mountain man Jim Bridger, Fort Bridger became a popular resupply point for pioneers heading west. It offered supplies, blacksmith services, and livestock. The fort’s location also made it a strategic stop for those traveling to California or Utah.

5. The Dalles, Oregon: Located near the end of the Oregon Trail, The Dalles served as a crucial resupply point for pioneers before they continued their journey down the Columbia River. Here, travelers could replenish their provisions, repair boats, and rest before navigating the treacherous river rapids.

These resupply points played a vital role in supporting the thousands of pioneers who embarked on the challenging journey along the Oregon Trail. They provided essential goods, services, and a sense of security, helping travelers overcome the hardships of the trail and reach their destination in the Oregon Territory.

Bathroom Facilities

On the Oregon Trail, bathroom facilities were extremely basic and often non-existent. Travelers had to make do with the natural surroundings for their bathroom needs. They would find a secluded spot away from the trail and dig a hole in the ground, commonly known as a “privy.” After use, the hole would be covered up to maintain hygiene and prevent the spread of diseases. Due to the lack of proper sanitation, bathroom facilities on the Oregon Trail were primitive and relied on the resources available in the wilderness.

Historical and Cultural Information

The Oregon Trail was a historic route used by pioneers during the mid-19th century to travel from the eastern United States to the Oregon Territory in the west. It played a significant role in the westward expansion of the United States, as thousands of settlers embarked on the arduous journey in search of new opportunities and a better life. The trail was marked by various challenges, including harsh weather conditions, treacherous terrain, and encounters with Native American tribes. The cultural impact of the Oregon Trail is evident in the stories and experiences of the pioneers, who faced hardships, formed new communities along the way, and contributed to the development of the American West.

Training Required For Before You Hike

Thru-hiking the Oregon Trail requires a combination of physical endurance, mental resilience, and practical skills. Training should focus on building stamina through long-distance hiking, as well as strength and flexibility exercises to prevent injuries. Familiarity with navigation, camping, and survival skills is crucial, along with knowledge of the trail’s history and terrain. Additionally, mental preparedness, including problem-solving abilities and adaptability, is essential for successfully completing this challenging journey.

Careers / Employment On The Trail

The Oregon Trail offers a range of potential career opportunities for individuals seeking adventure and new beginnings. One such opportunity is that of a fur trapper. With an abundance of wildlife along the trail, fur trappers can capitalize on the demand for furs and pelts. They can explore the wilderness, set traps, and trade their valuable goods with fellow pioneers or Native American tribes. This career not only provides a chance to connect with nature but also offers the potential for significant financial gain.

Another potential career opportunity on the Oregon Trail is that of a blacksmith. As pioneers journeyed westward, the need for skilled blacksmiths grew exponentially. Blacksmiths played a crucial role in repairing wagons, horseshoes, and other essential tools and equipment. They were highly sought after for their ability to shape and mold metal, ensuring the durability and functionality of various items. With the increasing number of settlers and the constant need for repairs, blacksmiths had a steady stream of work and the opportunity to establish a thriving business along the Oregon Trail.

Flora and Fauna

The specific flora and fauna on the Oregon Trail include various grasses, wildflowers, sagebrush, cottonwood trees, and willows, as well as animals such as bison, elk, deer, pronghorn, wolves, coyotes, rabbits, squirrels, and various bird species.


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